Management of Training & Development Course
Management Training Course 1
INTRODUCTION TO TRAINING DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION
Management of Training and Development is an elective subject for HR specialist. This is your first Management Course to the subject. After going through this Management Course you will be able to :
Organisation and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modem management has to develop the organisation through human resource development. Employee training is the important sub-system of human resource development. Employee training is a specialised function and is one of the fundamental operative functions for human resources management.
Human Resources are the most important resources of any organization.
Trained Employee is a price less stone.
After an employee is selected, placed and introduced he or she must be provided with training facilities. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilising a systematic and organised procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Dale S. Beach define the training as "... the organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and/or skill for a definite purpose.
In other words training improves, changes, moulds the employee's knowledge, skill, -behaviour, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organisation. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organisation, to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and. organisation.
Training is the art of increasing knowledge & skills of an employee for doing a particular job.
Training is the intentional act of providing means for learning to take place.
Training tries to improve skills or add to the existing level of knowledge so that the employees is better equipped to do his present job or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibility and are also able to cope with the pressures of a changing environment.
Training is a systematic process of changing the behaviour, knowledge and attitude to bridge gap between employee characteristics and organsiation expectations.
Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and employee's present specifications
Objectives Of Training
Generally line managers ask the personnel manager to formulate the training policies. The personnel Manager formulates the following training objectives in keeping with the Company's goals and objectives:
(a) To prepare the employee both new and old to meet the present as well as
the changing requirements of the job and the organisation.
(b) To prevent obsolescence.
(e) To impart the new entrants the basic knowledge and skill they need for an
intelligent performance of definite job.
(d) To prepare employees for higher level tasks.
(e) To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by
exposing them to the latest concepts, information and techniques and
developing the skills they will need in their particular fields.
(I) To build up a second line of competent officers and prepare them to occupy
more responsible positions.
(g) To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside with a view to correcting the narrowness of outlook that may arise from .over specialisation.
(h) To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.
(i) To ensure smooth and efficient working of a department.
0) To ensure economical output of required quality.
(k) To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co
operative attitudes and good relationships. .
Areas of Training
Organisation provide training to their employees in the following areas: (1) Company policies and procedures;
(2) Specific skills;
(3) Human relations;
(4) Problem solving;
(5) Managerial and supervisory skills; and
(6) Apprentice training.
(1) Company Policies and Procedures: This area of training is to be provided with
a view to acquainting the new employee with the Company Rules, Practices, Procedures, Tradition, Management, Organisation Structure, Environment Product! Services offered by the company etc.
This acquaintance enables the new employee to adjust himself with the changing situations. Information regarding company rules and policies creates favourable attitudes of confidence in the minds of new employee about the company and its products/services, as well as it develops in him a sense of respect for the existing employees of the company and the like. The company also provides first hand information to the employee about the skills needed by the company, its development
programmes, quality of products/services and the like. This enables the new employees . to know his share of contribution to the organisation's growth and development. .
(2) Training in Specific Skills: This area of training is to enable the employee more effective on the job. The trainer trains the employee regarding. various skills necessary to do the actual job. For example, the clerk in the bank should be trained in the skills of making entries correctly in the edge, skills and arithmetical calculations, quick comparison of figures, entries and the like. Similarly, the technical officers are to be trained in the skills of project appraisal, supervision, follow-up and the like
(3) Human Relations Training: Human relations training assumes greater significance in organisations as employees have to maintain human relations not only with other employees but also.with their customers. Employees are to be trained in the areas of self-learning, interpersonal competence, group dynamics, perception, leadership styles, motivation, grievance redressal, disciplinary procedure, and the like. This training enables the employees for better team work, which leads to improved efficiency and productivity of the organisation.
(4) Problem Solving Training: Most of the organisational problems are common to the employees dealing the same activity at different levels of the organisation. Further some of the problems of different managers may have the same root cause. Hence, management may call together all managerial personnel to discuss common problems so as to arrive at effective solutions across the table. This not only helps in solving the problems but also serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas and information that could be utilised. The trainer has to organise such meetings, train and encourage the trainees to participate actively in such meetings.
(5) Managerial and Supervisory Training: Even the non-managers sometimes perform managerial and supervisory functions like planning, decision-making, organising, maintaining inter-personal relations, directing and controlling. Hence, management has to train the employee in managerial and supervisory skills also.
(6) Apprentice Training: The Apprentice Act, 1961 requires industrial units of specified industries to provide training in basic skills and knowledge in specified trades to educated unemployees /apprentices with a view to improving their employment opportunities or to enable them to start their own industry. This type of training generally ranges between one year to four years. This training is generally used for providing technical Knowledge in the areas like trades, crafts etc.
The importance of human resource management to a large extent depends on human resource development. Training is the most important technique of human resource development. As stated earlier, no organisation can get a candidate who exactly matches with the job and the organisational requirements. Hence, training is important to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job.
Job and organisational requirements are not static, they are changed from time to time in view of technological advancement and change in the awareness of the Total Quality and Productivity Management (TQPM). The objectives of the TQPM can be achieved only through training as training develops human skills and efficiency. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organisation. Organisational efficiency, productivity, progress and development to a greater extent depend on training. Organisational objectives like viability, stability and growth can also be achieved through training. Training is important as it constitutes significant part of management control.
Let us go through some benefits of training as below:
Drawbacks of the training
The training could be a failure due to the following factors:
(i) Unrealistic goals
(ii) Input overloads
(iii) Alienation of participants
(iv) Linkage failures
One of the methods for helping the trainees in the posts training period, i.e. while they are on the job is to encourage trainees to refer back their problems, which however, could be done only in consultation with the authorities of the implementing- agency organisation.
Problems of training
The training exercises/effort may suffer due to the absence of:
A training programme may suffer from the following risks:
Design risk. Among the several reasons leading to inappropriate design are the following:
i) Training to deal with some symptoms and causes;
. ii) Training content and targets influenced by prejudice;
iii) Internal and external trainers preferences;
iv) Limited search in the choice of materials and methodology.
Conduct rise: In the actual conduct of the training, even with a good design, the following may be some of the possible risks:
i) cancellation of some or more of the planned training events;
ii) failure to get nominations;
iii) failure of the nominees attending the course;
iv) non-availability of faculty members of their substitutes;
v) absence of inability of the Course director in integrating the inputs by different speakers towards the achievement of the goals; and
iv) administrative lapses.
Learning risks. The level of learning could be at risk from the following factors:
i) lack of interest in learning;
ii) no perception of either awards for learning or
punishment for not learning;
iii) negative attitudes arising from personal and work role experience.
iv) complacency and resistance to self-change;
v) Sense of helplessness about self and others in the organisation in utilising training inputs.
Transfer risks: The stage of transfer may be found to suffer form the following difficulties: '
i) lack of interest of the individual trainees;
ii) lack of support form his superiors;
iii) partial or 'no implementation by group of joint commitments to action.
iv) turnover of the trainee:
v) wrong posting of the' trainee;
vi) lack of coordinated approach in strategy, organisation and systems; and
vii) other environmental crises.
A view-point is sometimes past forward that often the trainers have great difficulty in determining the kind of training needed for and what they expect it to accomplish. At the same time, it is extremely difficult to evaluate the results of such training.
The evaluation in respect of training as related, to trainers has been ignored more; than are other area in training. Methods of training have not been always properly evaluated. The fact that this evaluation like any other evaluation is a complex effort should not be a deterrent for making all reasonable efforts in evaluating whether or not such training is worth the corresponding effort of the trainer. Evaluation of a training programme/ course is very important not only form the point of improving training but also to help the participant trainees and trainers to function more effectively. Evaluation can be involving the total programme or it can be partial aiming at appraisal of some salient aspects.
Training and Development
Employee training is distinct from management development or executive development. While the former refers to training given to employees in the areas of operations, technical and allied areas, the latter refers to developing an employee in the areas of principles and techniques of management, administration, organisation and allied areas. Following are the differences between training and development:
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRAINING DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION
TRAINING AND EDUCATION:
Purpose of training is to supplement education.
Training goes hand in hand with education.
Learning is modification behaviour through training.
In all training there is some education and in all education there is some training . These two processes cannot be separated from development.
Training is concerned with increasing the technical skills and knowledge and operative skills in doing a particular job. Hence, mostly employers train their employees for a particular job. But the scope of education is broader. It includes acquiring not only technical skills and knowledge, but also behavioural skills and knowledge, general knowledge, social knowledge and the like. Thus, the purpose of education is to develop individuals. It is concerned with the changing environmental, political and social developments. Education is not only through formal instruction in the educational institutes, but also through training, observation, awareness and so on and so forth. Training normally has a more immediate and specific utilitarian purpose whereas education has 10ng-n1n and general utility. Though it is difficult to differentiate training from education as they are closely interrelated, it can be said that training is part of education. According to Dale Yoder, "The use of the terms training and development in today's employment setting is far more appropriate than training alone since human resource can exert their full potential only when the learning process goes far beyond simple routine."4
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND EDUCATION
Areas Training Education
Orientation Application Theoretical conceptual
Emphasis Technical Technical general
Learning On the job and off the job Classroom
Scope Specific Tasks General Concepts
Payment Trainee is paid to learn Student pays to learn
Also see functional classification between training and personnel Management
Corporate education has become a strategic function as we enter this century. In the best organizations, education is no longer the first to be cut back in a downturn. Rather, best-in-class corporate education is making a difference to the bottom line.
Good corporate education has an impact on:
Training vs. Education:
A Distinction That Makes
It's tough to manage a bank these days. Restructuring has stretched our staffs incredibly thin. More and more of our employees are part-timers. Cut-throat competition has unleashed a torrent of new and complicated products. Our bankers must become extroverted sales professionals. Many of our people lack the skills to do their jobs effectively. In short, banks are facing a crisis of competence. And what are bank managers doing to prepare their staffs to meet these challenges? How are they managing the crisis? Not well, I fear. Last week the president of a major bank's investment subsidiary told me, "Our bank's platform staff have already been educated about mutual funds. They had attended a half-day sales seminar from our third-party provider four months ago, learning the features and benefits of their mutual funds. Not only that, the program was free."
Allow me to explain five places where I think he was going astray.
Training is not education
First of all, training is not education. Education is generally measured by tenure: you spent a day in the seminar or four years in college. Training, on the other hand, is measured by what you can do when you've completed it. Think of it this way. If your sixteen year-old daughter told you that she was going to take a sex education course at high school, you might be pleased. What if she announced she was going to take part in some sex
training at school? Would that elicit the same response? Training is doing. Training improves performance. Seminars don't train
Second, while seminars are entertaining, they're generally not the best way to change behavior. Most of the content in a traditional seminar flows in one e ar and out the other. Researchers report that people remember 90 percent of what they do, 75 percent of what they say, and 10 percent of what they hear. Three hundred thousand bankers have participated in Omega training. They have learned to sell and to make sound decisions. Not one has attended an Omega seminar. Platform bankers who attend BSA/Omega workshops do a lot more than warm chairs and listen. They "inherit" play money so they can identify with wealthy customers, they leave the workshop to shop the competition, they demonstrate their mastery of product information in mock-Jeopardy games, and
they practice probing and selling skills on one anot her. They're active. They learn by doing.
What do you want them to do?
Third, for training to work, you must be clear about what you want people to accomplish when it's over. After all, the only reason to train people is to help them meet specific objectives. You can't afford to leave those objectives unstated or to delegate deciding your people's objectives to others.
A good objective will be actionable, for example "increase the number of relationships with each customer." A bad objective often describes knowing something rather than doing something, for example, "gain more product knowledge." You must also decide whether a performance deficiency is really a training problem. The classic instructional
designer's test is to ask, "If he had a gun to his head, could he do it?" If the answer is yes, you're facing a problem of motivation, not a t raining problem. If you do have a training problem, you must explicitly describe the behaviors you expect after training.
To hammer the message home, you must tell the trainees how you expect them to perform at its conclusion. For example, participants in the BSA/Omega workshops are told that, "When you have completed this module and the corresponding
classroom experience s, you will be able to:
˜Profile the full range of needs during customer interactions, paying particular attention to investment needs
˜Explore customer investment needs upon noticing appropriate customer cues
˜Determine appropriate referral destination
˜Introduce your bank's investment alternatives to customers
˜Convince customers that they should meet with Investment or Trust Representatives, arrange the actual meeting
˜Handle obstacles to effective investment referrals
˜Participate effectively in joint meetings with customers and Investment and Trust Representatives to facilitate close of sale and to gain increased product knowledge
˜Follow up with customers to confirm referral and expand the relationship"
Beware of freebies
Fourth, in training as in life, there is no free lunch. "Free" training is often more expensive than no training at all. Putting aside trainee salaries, consider the opportunity cost of people who are not performing at their best. The cost of effective training pales in
comparison to the bottom-line benefits it provides. Consider this: a platform person at one bank had never made an investment referral in her career. Interviewing
a customer a few weeks after taking an Omega workshop, she asked, "How much money are we talking about?" She almost slid out of her chair whe n the customer responded, "$1.1 million." She made the referral and the Trust Department has booked the business. Now they're working on her second referral of the month--for $630,000 worth of business. Or consider this: within six months of conducting Omega workshops, one bank was startled to find that the average platform banker had generated referrals that led to $100,000 of new mutual fund business.
The moral of these examples is that effective training is not a cost at all. It is an investment that pays substantial returns. It never ends
Fifth, training is not a one-shot deal; it's a process. Positive behaviors must be reinforced if they are to be retained. Did you study a foreign language in college?
You pore over the books and log time in the language lab. Maybe even travel for a month in France. You become proficient, if not fluent. As the years go by, and you never have an opportunity to speak or write the language, your skills atrophy. You can't remember anything except how to ask where the toilet is and how to count to ten. Maybe you did practice that language. In that case, tell me, how much geometry do you remember from high school? Bank training is no different. It takes practice. It takes a pat on the back. It takes a mentor who encourages the good behavior and discourages the bad. It takes a manager who sets realistic goals and monitors performance. Individual training programs are not enough to create success over time. Success requires a sustained performance improvement system. Most things are easy to learn but hard to master. My advice to the senior banker that started me on this rant: Don't mistake action for results. In the course of helping bankers improve their performance over the past two decades, we've found that the only thing worse than learning from experience is not learning from experience.
If your staff is grappling with a crisis of competence, you're hardly alone. Be assured that your organization's performance will improve if your people are properly trained and coached. As Mark Twain once said, "There is nothing training cannot do. No thing is
above its reach."
A Look to the Future of Training and Development
Peter Senge popularized the concept of learning organization in his book The Fifth Discipline. He described them as places "where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nutured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together"
Learning organizations appear to be proficient in a number of activities: systematic problem solving, experimentation with new approaches, learning from their own experience and history, learning from the experiences and best practices of others, and transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization ( Garvin 1993). Learning in firms such as General Electric, Pittsburgh Plate Glass (PPG), and Xerox has been traced using a learning perspective that involves three stages: (1) cognitive--members are exposed to new ideas, expand their knowledge, and begin to think differently; (2) behavioral--employees begin to alter their behavior; and (3) improvement of performance--changes in behavior lead to measurable improvement in results ( Howard 1992).
In an organization dedicated to creating a learning environment, training is a top priority. Learning organizations do not simply appear. They are fostered by devoting time, energy, and resources on a continuous basis to the training and development of employees. Taking steps to encourage learning through training and development activities and forums is essential to improved understanding, performance, and effectiveness
Humour in Training
A Personnel Officer had a head injury. The doctor operated and removed his brain and kept it aside while repairing his skull. A crow took away the brain. The doctor quietly repaired the skull and sent away the P.O asking him to come after one week
for checkup. In the meanwhile, the doctor procured another brain
for the P.O. but the P.O did not turn up. Doctor emquired of P.O.
after one week why he did not turn up for brain replacement. The
P.O. replied that he was working in HPCL and therefore it matters
little whether he has brain or not. (You can use any company name for the joke)
* * * * * *
A union leader thought that anybody can perform the duties of a Personnel Officer and therefore applied for the post of a P.O. The selection committee went through his bio-data and were very
much impressed by it. particularly for his experience in dealing
with the management. Therefore the Committee put a question:
"What do you understand by Collective Bargaining?" .
"It means, management bargains and union collect" he replied
* * * * * *
At a farewell party to a retired officer. the boss commented: "He has retired now, but he stopped working since" long.
* * * * * *
In the Rashtrapati Bhavan. there w~s presentation cerem.ony
of the .Parama Vir Chakra medals. Everyone was asked to narrate
his story of bravery for receiving the PVC medal. One lean' and
thin soldier came forward. and said that he cut the leg of the
enemy. When asked why he did not cut the head, the soldier
replied that the enemy did not possess a head.
* * * * * *
Four persons were travelling by train and (heir conversation
went like this:
First: "I am a brigadier. I am married. I have (hree sons and
they are all doctors."
Second: "I am also a brigadier. I am also married. I have
three Sons and they are all engineers."
Third: "How remarkable. I am also a brigadier. I am
also married. I have three Sons and they are all lawyers."
The Fourth passenger was rather reticent. However, after much prompting, he started: "I am not a brigadier. I am not
married. But I have three sons, and they are all brigadiers."
* * * * * * *
. A foreign consultant came across a clerk in an office doing
no work. He asked him "Why asked him "Why don't you Work?"
"Why should I" asked the clerk.
"So that you can get promoted and make more money" said
"What is the point of earning more money" asked the clerk.
"So that you can retire early if you Want and won't have to
work" replied the consultant.
"I am not working now" pointed out the clerk.
* * * * * *
One day a teacher was teaching geography in a government aided school when the School Inspector came for a visit. The teacher said to the students that the river Ganga starts in the Himalayas and flows into the Arabian sea. When the School Inspector pointed our the mistake, the teacher replied that they were not gelting their salaries since last six months and until they receive their salaries, the Ganga will continue to flow into the Arabian sea.
* * * * * *
India's most famous sitarist, Ravi Shankar, who once asked whether he practiced sitar daily. Shankar replied; "I believe in the saying that if you miss one day, you notice it. If you miss two days, the critics notice it. If you miss three days, the audience notice it
* * * * * *
A man had a one-rupee coin and wanted to know whether it is genuine. He met a lawyer on the road and asked him whether it was genuine or a counterfeit coin. The lawyer turned the coin one way and the other, tossed it in air, and caught it spinning down, looked hard at it and ultimately declared that it was a good coin. So saying, the lawyer pocketed the coin and said. "you asked for my opinion and I have given you that. This rupee is the . fee for my legal opinion."
* * * * * *
There was once a famous musician who sang before a Nawab and got land gift from the Nawab. The Court Officer was not happy with the Nawab's generosity. But he could not go against the orders of the Nawab. So he wrote out a deed and handed it over to the musician. The document mentioned one hectare in Kashmir, once hectare near Ujjain, one hectare in Assam and so on to make up his hundred hectares. The mu~ician found it impossible to cultivate the land so scaltered. He therefore complained to the Nawab against the Court Officer that the officer had wrilten the title deed of lands far off. The Officer explained to the Nawab: "Sir, he is wrong, see how closely I have wrilten. If I write stiH closer, no one can read this document." The Nawab looked at the document and agreed with it. He called the. musician and said: "you have misled me and the one hundred hectares of land which I gave you as gift is cancelled."
* * * * * *
A man helped a Minister and requested something in' return. "What do you want" asked the Minister. "I want to be a postmaster" replied the man. "But you can neither read nor write.. How can you work in a post office?" enquired the Minister. "Who is talking of work? I do not want to be an Assistant Postmaster. I want to be a Postmaster" insisted the man.
* * * * * *
A counterfeit note manufacturer took a 15 rupee note to a re-mote village where he thought he could exchange it with ease. He asked a Pan Shop Wa1lah whether he has change for the Rs
15. The Pan Wallah readily exchanged it with two Rs 7.50 notes.
* * * * * *
St. Peter went to Heel and found that in the dining hall a long table was spread with good food. On either side were rows of persons but their hands were tied with long wooden ladles. They were unable to feed for themselves. St. Peter then went to Heaven. He saw there a similar scene in the dining hall, but here each person was feeding the one opposite to him thus helping each other for mutual benefit.
* * * * * *
Zuben Mehta was garlanded with roses at one concert. With the garland round his neck, Zuben started conducting the orchestra but the rose petals were falling down. In the audience a. person
wispered: "By the time the concert is finished he will be Left with' the thread". His wife, silting by his side, said "But he will stand on rose petals after his' successful concert."
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